Oct 29, 2019 CodeWeavers, who develops CrossOver and by extension Wine, has developed a solution for 32-bit software, and they've posted some updates on their blog about it. Celebrating the difficult; the release of CrossOver 19; CrossOver 19 is progressing well and is now in beta! Announcing a first Alpha build of CrossOver 19 for macOS Catalina. By Jeremy White I am happy to announce that we have finished a first alpha build of CrossOver 19 for macOS 10.15. This build is intended for customers that have upgraded to Catalina only to find themselves unable to run their favorite Windows applications with CrossOver. Catalina bonneville granc safari bonneville brougham(1976) c: electra 225(1976-79) electra limited electra estate wagon(1980) calais(1976) deville fleetwood brougham(c-spec) ninty-eight luxury ninety-eight regency e.
Now let's discuss the capacitor. (For those of you who want to read more detail on the performance issues with real world capacitors, there is an excellent treatment of the subject in Wikipedia @ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Types_of_capacitor).
There are many non ideal behaviors that capacitors show, but perhaps the worst is dielectric absorption. This is a fancy name for capacitor memory. The dielectric is the material which insulates the two electrically conductive rolled plates in contact with the capacitor terminals. This dielectric material is how we specify the capacitor type, e.g., mylar, polypropylene, electrolytic, ceramic, etc. With Dielectric Absorption (DA) even after the initial voltage gets removed from the capacitor terminals by shorting out the capacitor, the capacitor returns to its prior state of charge without any signal being supplied. The energy which returns comes from the electrical insulating film, or dielectric, in which it was stored. Problem is, the dielectric is not supposed to store a charge. Use of polystyrene, polypropylene and Teflon as dielectrics will keep this effect to a minimum. This effect (DA) is also known as dielectric absorption hysteresis. Hysteresis is the storage of energy in a medium. It is what makes our permanent magnets work, causes speakers to drift off center position, and what make a magnetic cored inductor distort even without saturating.
A 27 ufd polypropylene and two 22 ufd non polar electrolytic capacitors
In the photograph above are three capacitors. The two smallest are both 22 ufd, 5% tolerance and 100 Volts ratings. The blue one in the center is about twice as large (volume not length) as the small black one. You can see the relative size of the 27 ufd Solen 400 Volt Polypropylene capacitor at the top of the photo. Which one of these three do you think will handle the most power? Which will handle the least? If you want a good seat of the pants approach for determining capacitor quality, here is a clue. For a given capacitance, bigger is almost always better.
The Q or quality factor (Also known as Dissipation Factor or DF) of a capacitor is a measure of its losses of signal due to leakage and Equivalent Series Resistance (ESR for short). The HIGHER the Q of the capacitor, the less losses it will impose on the signal. Secondary to the signal loss, is that high DF capacitors will create more heat while they are passing the electrical signal. An ideal capacitor will not dissipate or absorb any electrical energy. A real capacitor will, and the resulting heat it generates, will likely mean the capacitors ESR will increase, meaning it will be easier to generate more heat and more loss. This is a little bit like the situation with a transistor getting hot, and increasing its native gain, which makes it get even hotter. With transistors this is known as thermal runaway. In short, the effect from the heat exacerbates itself, like positive feedback in a microphone feeding a loudspeaker.
Some of us will always prefer to 'Roll our Own'
In a loudspeaker, the heat which increases the voice coil resistance means that the voice coil draws less power from the voltage amp as the voice coil gets hotter. (Heat in this instance acts like a compressor). With a capacitor getting hot, it starts to dissipate even more power, not less. While heat tends to make the voice coil self limiting, it makes semiconductors and capacitors likely to run away with an accelerating problem. While this effect (DF) is measurable in film dielectric capacitors, like mylar and polypropylene, it is not likely to be large enough to be audible. Dissipation Factor (DF) IS a serious issue with electrolytic capacitors. My very first consulting job in 1983 was fixing a crossover for a DJ in New Hampshire. When I opened up his speaker, I found his electrolytic capacitors had gotten SO HOT they literally blew up. All that was left of the electrolytic capacitors used was the plastic covering over the metal capacitor cases. The parts failed and exploded! (In the DJ business, it is often about how loud you are more than how good you sound).
When you are comparing electrolytic capacitors, and you notice some of these parts are much smaller than others which seem to bear the same specifications, it means you have left out one very important specification, that of DF (Dissipation Factor). This is often a good measure of the life of the part, along with its Voltage and temperature rating. This imperfection is THE compromise made with capacitors in order to keep both the size and the cost low. The initial cost that is. If it blows up in your crossover, it may not have been worth saving the initial $2 you saved at retail. Since this is something hidden inside the speaker box, the manufacturer often believes the buyer ignorant of this, so they elect to pocket the savings, hoping the cheap parts used will outlive the life of the warranty.
For a sense of scale, a flip phone, 18 ufd electrolytic (green) and 18 ufd Mylar (white)
Like the resistor, the capacitor can also be inductive at a high enough frequency. This ill effect is known as ESL (Equivalent Series Inductance). (We use the letter L to designate an inductor in a circuit diagram). In case you have wondered why Choke, Inductor and Coil is represented in electronic circuits by the letter 'L' it is not solely because 'C' was already taken by the capacitor.
For some background on this go to: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lenz's_law
In the world of the crossover, ESL is not likely an audible phenomenon, given the high inherent inductance of most loudspeakers. Audiophiles will likely want to argue with me on this point, so let me deflect this by saying when I discuss audibility I do not include the most sensitive audiophiles in the discussion. Some audiophiles claim hearing abilities rivaling that of bats and sonar equipment. That said, if measured you will find the typical tweeter has 100 times or more inductance than the most inductive capacitor likely to be in series with it. If one is using a very large capacitor, such as a 200 ufd electrolytic, then it may be helpful to bypass it (parallel) with a 0.1 - 0.5 ufd film capacitor to effectively eliminate the ESL. Unlike DF or DA, ESL can be eliminated by a lower value capacitor being used in parallel.
Inductors - The Most expensive & Most problematic Crossover Element
Let's consider the subject of chokes. Once again I am inclined to thank collectively the authors of Wikipedia for an excellent treatment of Inductance, and its close relatives, EMF, magnetic flux, and magnetism. There is enough physical science behind an inductor to write not just one article but several large textbooks, and many scientific journal articles.
For an excellent general treatment and links enough to keep the scientifically curious busy for days: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inductor This page shows no less than (6) different formula for calculating inductance of an air core choke. (So try not to go nuts..)
The primary figure of merit for a crossover coil is its Quality factor (or Q) for short. The quality factor of a coil is determined by:
W(Omega) = 2pi*Frequency
L = Inductance in Henries
R = Resistance in Ohms
Ignoring all else but the resistance of the choke we can see as this figure goes to zero, the Quality factor (Q) approaches infinity. We can also see from this, that a choke of 1 millihenry inductance having a resistance of 0.5 ohms, has the same quality factor of a choke of 2 millihenries inductance having a resistance of 1.0 ohms. This should make it obvious to those who understand that as the crossover frequency goes lower, the size of, cost of, and importance of the quality factor (Q) of the inductor becomes more and more important. Two ohms in series with a four ohm woofer, is still a bigger problem than one ohms will be with regard to losses. This is one important reason why manufacturers sometimes shy away from systems having very low crossover points. Even when it is better for performance, it is often so costly to do it right, that a higher crossover point gets chosen for budgetary reasons.
2.0 mH air core Jantzen from Parts Express = $11.00 each = 0.80 ohms DCR
2.0 mH iron core Erse from Parts Express = $ 7.49 each = 0.26 ohms DCR
On the face of it, the magnetic core choke seems to be a better deal.
A laminated Steel Core Choke
Inductors are the biggest attention getters in the passive crossover and for good reason. They are usually the largest and most expensive parts used, and they are present in sizes and masses that have few real analogs in the electronic world except for transformers in power supplies or charging coils used in magnet chargers. Inductors are subject to losses much more so than capacitors. While one can buy a high quality mylar or polypropylene capacitor today for a few dollars, a very high quality large value air core choke is still many times more expensive than that high quality capacitor.
Like electronic components on a PCB, sometimes the inductors are not just inductors, sometimes they are transformers as well. (Just like sometimes loudspeaker voice coils are inductors when they were trying to be simple resistors). For those of you familiar with the construction of transformers, you will remember they are two separate electrical windings both put on a common magnetic core which is intended to link them together by electromagnetic field coupling, also sometimes called inductive coupling.
Let’s take a look at the following circuit:
An inexpensive LCR meter will Define the deficiencies of your parts
Let’s say we used two chokes, both 3 mH and both randomly placed on the PCB. Here in my lab on the prototyping board, they look like this:
If we curve the HP and LP function of this network, we find the following frequency responses:
Frequency Response of System with Separated Chokes
We have our expected High Pass and Low Pass function, but we might notice there is more loss in the LP than the HP filter. Of course, we say, the inductor is in series with the resistor load in the LP but in parallel on the HP circuit. That results in a significant series resistance being placed between the amplifier and the load, in this case a 5.6 ohm resistor. Now, lets’ move the inductors so that they are physically on top of one another, (see photo below) stacked so they share the same diameter and run the test again.
HP and LP ChokesStacked so they inductively couple
Change in HP response due to stacking the HP and LP chokes
Looking at the green and red HP curves, we might notice two things here. First, we have an increasingly divergent stop-band on the HP filter section, and second, we have less rejection (below 400 Hz). Why? Because the close proximity of the two inductors means they are inductively coupled so we are getting crosstalk. Because the signal is coupled between the two inductors, the series LP choke, and the parallel HP choke, we get a lessening of the out of band signal rejection of the HP section. Two conductors are inductively coupled when they are configured such that change in current through one wire induces a voltage across the other wire. By placing one inductor on top of the other, I am inducing currents to flow in the HP choke because of the current flowing through the LP choke. It is for this reason that you will often find crossover chokes places at right angles to one another as pictured below when laid out on a PCB. This orientation eliminates most of the inductive coupling that would occur inadvertently.
A 5.6 mH magnetic core and a 3.6 mH air-core choke side by side
In the photo above we have two different kinds of Inductors. Magnetic and Air core. The magnetic core (left) is 5.6 mH and has a DCR of 0.28 ohms. It is wound from 15 AWG copper wire. The 3.0 mH air core choke, wound from 16 AWG copper wire has a DCR of 0.75 ohms, or three times the resistance and about 64% of the inductance. This means the loss in the Air core is about 4.66 times as great as the iron core choke. In order to both minimize the inductors resistance and cost, vendors have wind chokes on magnetic cores. There are different types of magnetic core materials used, depending on the frequency range the choke is to be used in. The beauty of using a magnetic core, is the huge savings in copper wire for a given inductance. (If I say laminated steel or ferrite or powdered iron, someone will feel compelled to explain to me the difference, and why one is superior to the other, so I shall simply differentiate inductors by saying magnetic or air core.) Because the magnetic core increases the permeability of the inductor, confining the magnetic field more closely and with greater intensity; you reach a given inductance with fewer turns of wire, allowing you to make a part which, for a given size, is going to have a much lower DCR than its air core counterpart. This means you will lose less power in your series LP chokes. It is this reason (plus cost) that we use magnetic cores in inductors.
On the face of it, the magnetic core choke seems to be a better deal all the way around. So, why then with all these advantages would anybody use anything but Magnetic core chokes? There are two reasons. Saturation, (an effect of running out of permeability by the ferrous core) and hysteresis, the storage of energy, which is present with all magnetic materials. Which problem is worse for the crossover designer; loss of signal due to higher resistance, or the nonlinearity of the magnetic core choke? This depends in large part upon the magnitude of the difference. This is why small value chokes are almost always air core, while very large value chokes are almost always magnetic core. I dislike taking sides in such debates when both approaches have distinct advantages. Personally, I can easily hear the distortion made by iron and steel core chokes, and would rather live with the higher cost and higher (but relatively constant) resistive losses in the air core choke than hear the distortion in a magnetic core choke. Unfortunately, at very high inductance values, air core chokes quickly become impractical because of their weight, size and cost.
Let's take a look at the following circuit, a simple first order low pass filter attached to some lab gear.
The Sine wave symbol indicates the power amp, in this case a bridged '3000 watt' power amplifier, and the V is the voltmeter, a Fluke model 45. The 5.6 mH choke is shown here as air core, but both air and magnetic core chokes were used for this experiment. Clio is a popular hardware/software system designed specifically for measuring audio. The input to the Clio box is put across a small 1 ohm resistor, placed between a pair of 40 ohm resistors so as not to load the bridged power amp, or cause an input voltage overload to the very expensive Clio box, which might cause the Clio to smoke, and me to lose my day job.
The point of this circuit is to see if I could measure distortion in the resistor load, and identify that distortion as originating from the changing impedance of the magnetic core choke. The theory is, if the core permeance is changing as it nears saturation, then the impedance of the choke will also change. Since an AC waveform varies its magnitude with time, the amount of saturation that occurs will be greater at the peak than elsewhere in the waveform. If that is true, this will generate a distortion in the voltage waveform and therefore in the resistor load, as the current flowing will not be faithful to the original input voltage. As the AC waveform varies, the current should follow it. Since the AC waveform varies its amplitude with time, even with a relatively invariant AC signal like a pure tone, how bad would it be if the signal had a crest factor of 20 db, not uncommon in music, instead of the relatively modest 3 db crest factor of a pure tone? Through the entirety of the AC waveform, the current will only be proportional to the voltage if the impedance does not vary (and like 99% of all amps, the power amplifier is a voltage amp, not a current amplifier).
Over the years there have been several tools and instructions on how to get the Watchtower Library to run on a Mac. Since it is a Windows application it will not run natively without using some sort of Windows emulator that enables a Windows program to run on the Mac.
One option is to use either VMWare Fusion or Parallels, but these require running a full copy of the Windows OS on top of the Mac OS. While this works, it is not ideal since you have to run a virtual machine every time you want to use the library.
The other option has been to use the open source program called Wine along with Wineskin Winery to install and run it on a Mac. With the release of macOS Catalina this method no longer worked and if you had the Watchtower Library already installed it would stop working when you upgraded to Catalina. This is because starting with Catalina, macOS no longer supported 32bit applications and would only work with 64bit applications. Wine and Wineskin only supported 32bit.
Below is how to get with Watchtower Library installed and running on a Mac running macOS Catalina. It is very important that you follow each step exactly as described otherwise it will likely fail. At the end of this article I have a section with any known issues I have found.
STEP 1: Download and install CrossOver Mac at https://www.codeweavers.com
CrossOver Mac enables you to run Watchtower Library without buying a Windows license, rebooting or using a virtual machine. CrossOver Mac makes it easy to launch Watchtower Library natively from the dock, and integrates macOS functionality like cross-platform copy & paste. It requires you to purchase it as it is not free, but you can download a free 14-day trial first to make sure it works for you before purchasing it. You can find instructions on How to install CrossOver Mac at https://www.codeweavers.com/support/wiki/mac/mactutorial/install
STEP 2: Download the latest copy of Watchtower Library from jw.org
Go to https://www.jw.org/en/online-help/watchtower-library/install-watchtower-library/ and download Watchtower Library (Optionally you can obtain a DVD from your congregation).
STEP 3: Mount the ISO image of the Watchtower Library
The download button on jw.org will download a large file about 2 GB that will be named something like ly_E.iso . This is an image file of the DVD so you will need to mount it on your Mac so that it can see the install files. Double-click the file and it should automatically mount it in your file system. You should see a Finder window pop up that looks like this:
If another window pops up called CrossOver Autorun and looks like the following then check the box that reads Remember this choice for all future Windows volumes and then click Ignore.
STEP 4: Run CrossOver Mac and start the installer
Run the CrossOver Mac app that you installed above (It may already be running in your in your dock). Click on the Install a Windows Application button.
STEP 5: Select an Application to Install
A window should pop up with Select an Application to Install. In the box that says Type the name of the Windows application you want to install type “Watchtower Library”. When you do this it will you you a list of various versions of Watchtower Library. DO NOT SELECT ANY FROM THE LIST!If you select one from the list it will likely fail during install. Scroll to the bottom of the list and select Unlisted application “Watchtower Library” . Click Continue. If you then get any pop up windows asking for access to your folders click Ok to allow this access.
STEP 6: Select Installer
When you selected Continue above it likely showed you the following window saying CrossOver is read to install Unlisted application “Watchtower Library“. DO NOT SELECT INSTALL at this time!
Click on where it says Select Installer and you should see the following window. Then click on Choose Installer File…
You will then see the pop up window below. Select form the left column the Watchtower Library iso image that has been mounted (it will be something like WTLIB17E). Then on the right select the file WTLSetup.exe. Now click Use this installer.
The Select Installer window should now list the WTLSetup.exe file on the list. Click on Continue.
STEP 7: Install & Finish
You should now see the following CrossOver is ready to install window. Note that it now says “CrossOver will install from WTLIB17E > WTLSetup.exe“. It also should say “CrossOver will install into a new Windows 7 bottle named “Watchtower Library”“. Click on Install.
The window will change and say Installing Unlisted application “Watchtower Library”… and it will show you the progress.
The Watchtower Library Setup window should pop up. Click on Next>
In the next window click on I Agree to the License Agreement to continue the install.
Click on Install in the Choose the destination directory window.
The bridge home pdf free download. Click Finish after the install completes and you see the following.
Click Done in the CrossOver Software Installer window.
STEP 8: Run the Watchtower Library using CrossOver
After the installation is complete you should see the following window in CrossOver. (If not then just open the CrossOver app again). Double click on the Watchtower Library icon in the box where it says Programs.
This should bring up the Watchtower Library app on your Mac. Yeah! But you are not done yet.
A box will then pop up and ask you “Would you like Watchtower Library to download updates automatically?”. Click Yes. It will then download the update. Note that when in reaches 99% it may appear to stop and hang for a long time. It is NOT stuck, but is just finishing up the download. Be patient and wait until it finishes the download. It will then apply the update. When it does this it will appear to hang at 0% for a long time. It is not stuck. Just wait and it will eventually start progressing and finish. If you are unable to get the automatic update working you can manually update it by following the optional instructions at the end of this article.
Once it finishes applying the update, you should see the Watchtower Library working and showing you the text for today. Congratulations, you now have Watchtower Library running on your Mac!
At this point you can add the Watchtower Library to your dock permanently so it is easy to run in the future. To do this right click on the Watchtower Library icon and select Keep in Dock. If you do not do this you will need to always first run the CrossOver app and then launch the Watchtower Library from within CrossOver.
OPTIONAL: Manually Updating Watchtower Library
To update the Watchtower Library manually you need to complete the following steps. You will need to do this every time you want to update the library (usually every 6 months). First, open https://www.jw.org/en/online-help/watchtower-library/update-watchtower-library/ in a browser and click on the Download button to save the file to your computer.
Follow the instructions Apply an Update Package
When the File Explorer window opens you will need to find the “.updatepkg” file to where you saved it on your Mac. The “My Computer” and “My Documents” folders won’t have it since this are only for CrossOver. If you saved the file to your Mac Desktop then select “My Mac Desktop”. If you saved it somewhere else on your Mac drive then you will need to look for it under the “/” folder. (For example: if you saved it in your Downloads folder you will need to navigate to /Users/yourusername/Downloads). Once you find the “.updatepkg” file, click on it and then clock on Open.
Crossover Catalina 2
Click on Yes when asked “Do you want to apply the update now?“
You will then see a progress bar showing you that it is updating. This can take awhile so don’t panic if it seems slow at first.
Once the update complete you should see the Watchtower Library working and showing you the text for today.
Crossover Catalina Steam
Swtor Crossover Catalina
Watchtower Library has experienced a problem and cannot continue: You may see this error message pop up when trying to access certain parts of the Watchtower Library. It seems to be an issue with pages that have audio files attached. For example: If you try to access a page of the Insight book that has the button to pronounce a name you will get this error. Pages that do not have pronunciations seem to work fine.
I do not know how to fix it at this time.UPDATE: This issue has been fixed with CrossOver version 20. If you are running a previous version, upgrade to the latest and Watchtower Library should work without issues.