Apache Web Server Example

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In this tutorial we install Apache web server in Raspberry Pi to control the LED from a webpage that can be accessed from anywhere over the internet. This is a basic tutorial with minimum features and it can be further modified to use this method in IoT based home automation, remote control automation, robotics etc.

Here we control an LED, connected to Raspberry Pi by using Apache web server. For this we create an html/php web page which has two buttons - one for turning on the LED and second for turning off the LED.

Just a word of advice now that I've got a few years of experience dealing with web sockets. NGINX is much better than Apache for this. NGINX was originally made to be a proxy server, so, naturally, it's much more stable as a proxy that Apache. As for which is a better web server is another topic. – user1846065 Jun 27 '17 at 12:27. One of the most popular web server in the world developed by the Apache Software Foundation. Apache is an open source software which supports almost all operating systems including Linux, Unix, Windows, FreeBSD, Mac OS X and more. About 60% of machines run on Apache Web Server. Apache HTTP Server. This is the most popular web server in the world developed by the Apache. The configuration structure is complex, and many of the advanced functionalities are difficult to use. This Apache server tutorial will explain the basics of Apache, providing instructions for Apache web server configuration in Linux, step by step. The aim is to help you not only set up Apache server, but also monitor it. A practical guide to secure and harden Apache HTTP Server. The Web Server is a crucial part of web-based applications. Apache Web Server is often placed at the edge of the network hence it becomes one of the most vulnerable services to attack.

Components Required

  1. Raspberry pi board (With Raspbian operating system)
  2. LED
  3. 250 ohm resistor
  4. Jumper Wires

A SSH client (Putty) is used to connect the Raspberry pi using Laptop or computer. For this the raspberry pi needs be connected to network via LAN or Wi-Fi. If you have a separate monitor for your raspberry pi, then it's better to connect raspberry pi with monitor and you don’t have to use any SSH client.

Controlling LED using Raspberry Pi Webserver

Step 1 Connections

The connections in this project are quite simple - positive pin of LED is connected to GPIO 27 pin and the negative to a 270 ohm resistor, the other side of which is connected to GND pin.

Step 2: Installing WiringPi Library

WiringPi is a PIN based GPIO access library written in C for the BCM2835, BCM2836 and BCM2837 SoC devices used in all Raspberry Pi versions. It’s released under the GNU LGPLv3 license and is usable from C, C++ and RTB (BASIC) as well as many other languages with suitable wrappers.

Download

1. First we will update our Pi with latest versions of Raspbian using the command:

2. Now we will install git by using this command:

3. Now obtain WiringPi using git by this command:

4. Then install WiringPi library using:

Step 3: Installing a Web Server

Apache is a very popular webserver, designed to create web servers that have the ability to host one or more HTTP-based websites. Apache Web Server can be enhanced by manipulating the code base or adding multiple extensions/add-ons. In our project we are using an HTTP server and it's PHP extension.

To Install Apache web server we will use following commands:

First, update the available packages :

Now, install the apache2 package by using this command command in terminal:

To test the web server whether it is working or not, go to your browser and type the Pi’s IP address in the tab. To find the Pi's IP address, type ifconfig at the command line.

By default, Apache puts a test HTML file in the web folder. This default web page is served when you browse to http://192.168.1.31 (whatever the Pi's IP address is) from another computer on the network.

Browse to the default web page either on the Pi or from another computer on the network and you will see the following:

This means Apache web server is working.

Now we will see how to Change the default web page with your own HTML page

Apache Web Server Download

This default web page is just an HTML file on the filesystem. It is located at var/www/html/index.html.

Navigate to this directory in a terminal window and have a look at what's inside: Audacity for chromebook.

This shows that by default there is one file in /var/www/html/ called index.html and it is owned by the root user . To edit the file, you need to change its ownership to your own username. Change the owner of the file using:

You can now try editing this file and then refresh the browser to see the web page change.

PHP Installation in Raspberry pi

Now if we want to use PHP code along with HTML then we have to further install the PHP extension in Raspberry pi. Using PHP code we can create shell commands to control the LED from PHP script.

To allow Apache server to edit PHP files, we will install the latest version of PHP and the PHP module for Apache. Use the following command in terminal to install these:

Now remove the default index.html file:

And create the your own index.php file:

Now enter the below code in index.php to test the PHP installation.

Save it by pressing CTRL + X and the ‘y’ and enter. Now refresh the webpage in your browser you will see a long page with lots of information about PHP. This shows that the PHP extension is installed properly. If you have any problem to the pages or if the pages do not appear try reinstalling apache server and its PHP extension.

Step 5: Start Coding for controlling GPIO pin using this Raspberry Pi Webserver

Now delete the previous code in index.php (<?php phpinfo(); ?>) file and insert below PHP code to control GPIO pins inside body of HTML code.

Below is the complete code for creating two buttons to turn on and off the LED connected to Raspberry Pi.

Apache Web Server Example Free

In above code there is a PHP script which checks which button is pressed by using below code and then turns on and off the LED accordingly.

Here we have used shell_exec() command in php code, this command is used to run the shell command from the PHP script. Learn more about shell_exec here. If you run the command inside shell_exec directly form the terminal of Raspberry pi, you can directly make GPIO pin 27 low or high. Below are two commands to test the LED directly from terminal.

After completing this, run the code in your browser by typing the IP address of raspberry pi in the browser. You will see 2 buttons - ON, OFF to control your LED by clicking these buttons.

This page contains information about two of the most popular web servers on the web.

Apache HTTP Server

Apache HTTP Server (also referred to as simply 'Apache') has, at the time of writing, been the most popular web server on the web since 1996. Apache is developed and maintained by the Apache Software Foundation, which consists of a decentralized team of developers. The software is produced under the Apache licence, which makes it free and open source.

Apache is available for a range of operating systems, including Unix, Linux, Novell Netware, Windows, Mac OS X, Solaris, and FreeBSD.

Example

Apache HTTP Server website: http://httpd.apache.org

Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS)

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IIS is, at the time of writing, the second most popular web server on the web. It is however, gaining market share, and if the current trend continues, it won't be long before it overtakes Apache.

IIS comes as an optional component of most Windows operating systems.

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You can configure IIS via the GUI and via configuration files.

Microsoft IIS website: http://www.iis.net/